In Germany, sustainable forestry has a history of 200 years. The term sustainability, now spoken all over the world, is not only limited to economic sustainability, but also socially and environmentally sustainable. As early as the 18th century, German forestry established the principle of sustainable use. The concept at that time was to make the forest uselessly. It can be said that the term sustainability has originated in the forestry of Germany. German forestry has explored a development path for the world's forestry.
The gap between Japan and Germany is large, what is the reason?
Japan is an island country and the mountains stretch for 2,500 kilometers. In Japan, mountain is equal to forest, so Japan's forest coverage is as high as 68%. There are many mountains in southern Germany, and forestry is mainly in the south. The forest coverage rate is 32%, which is less than half of Japan's, but it is still a country with high coverage in Europe.
Japan's land area is only slightly larger than Germany, and the forest area is twice that of Germany. The German forest is about 11 million hectares, which is equivalent to the area of â€‹â€‹planted forest in Japan. Therefore, Japan is a country rich in forests that Europeans are very envious of. However, from the perspective of the amount of forest hectares and the use of forests, Japan is far less than Germany. German forests have a volume of 310 cubic meters per hectare, and Japanese plantations are only 210 cubic meters. The annual growth of German forests is 12.2 cubic meters per hectare, and Japan is only 8.0 cubic meters. The annual harvest of German forests is 8.7 cubic meters per hectare. Japan is only 1.6 cubic meters; German harvesting uses nearly 80% of forest growth, Japan is only 20%; German timber self-sufficiency rate is actually 100%, Japan is only 20%; Germany also imports timber, but now timber Exports have exceeded imports, while Japan is a major timber importer, with timber exports below 0.7% of imports.
Most of Japan's forests are divided into 30- to 40-year-old forests and are in an important period of urgent need for thinning. However, due to the difficulty in raising income by small-scale wood harvesting, the large trees are harvested with little left, the forest age group is unbalanced, and forestry is in deep trouble. In Germany, the structure of the forest age is very uniform, retaining a lot of large-diameter wood for more than 80 years. In the industrial revolution 200 years ago, Germany needed a lot of wood for fuel, so many forests were cut down. Later, conifers such as spruce, fir and pine were mainly planted. Since then, only the amount of forest growth has been taken. The sustainable use forms a uniform forest age structure and sustainable forestry today.
High-diameter production under high volume, advanced forestry machinery, developed road network and perfect forestry service system make German forestry operate efficiently
Selecting large diameter timber, using advanced forestry machinery, the forest area has a developed road network and a sound forestry service system, which is probably the reason why German forestry can be efficiently produced.
Germany basically prohibits deforestation and is renewed while harvesting large diameter trees. Forest harvesting is the selective cutting of trees over 80 years old, and appropriate skylights or strip harvesting to promote light and promote natural regeneration in naturally renewable areas. Plantations can be harvested and renewed in about 30 to 50 years, and once in 5 to 10 years. Of course, sometimes some trees are planted. For example, in places where habitats are more fragile, it is necessary to properly plant broad-leaved trees to consolidate soil and water; in areas where it is difficult to naturally renew after being damaged by windstorms and pests, afforestation is required.
Under normal circumstances, the cost of forestry production in Germany is: the average cost of harvesting is about 3,600 yen / cubic meter (about 288 yuan / cubic meter). The price of wood is divided into B price and C price. The average price is about 10,000 yen/m3 (about RMB 800/m3), and the income is about 6,400 yen/m3 (about RMB 512/ cubic meter).
The stock of forests per hectare in Germany exceeds 310 cubic meters, and the trees harvested are mainly large-diameter timbers of 80 years or older. Harvesting a tree can harvest 3 to 4 cubic meters of wood, which is the first element of efficient production.
The establishment of an advanced wood production operation system is the second element of efficient production. In the Black Forest region, timber production is generally carried out using skidders for the original strips. The specific method is to use the chainsaw to cut and shoot, and to use the winch to lift the original strip to the roadside. Recently, the combined feller and Fawda have been used. The combination of self-loading logs and full-load trucks is increasing. Due to the different conditions of forest land and sloping land, the daily processing capacity of skidder tractors is 70 cubic meters to 200 cubic meters per unit. If calculated on a daily basis of 100 cubic meters, assuming that each mechanical year is 150 days, the annual processing capacity per machine is about 15,000 cubic meters. If calculated by area, the average annual harvested area per machine is 200 hectares - 300 hectares.
Germany used trailers to transport 15 to 20 meters of original strips, and 40 years ago it built a standard forest road for large trailers with a load of 40 to 50 tons. The state has invested heavily in the construction of forest roads, with a subsidy rate of up to 80%. Moreover, in the absence of a backbone forest road, a mechanical access road is opened at 60 meters per hectare. Intensive road networks increase productivity. It can be said that it is because of the huge investment given by the state to the construction of forest roads 40 years ago that the current German forestry has been established.
There is a forest officer system in Germany. The forest officer is a national civil servant. It is distributed in forestry bureaus and forest farms. Their main job is to provide guidance and services for private forestry operations, including one-stop service from forest cultivation to timber production and sales. . In addition, the local forestry bureau is the operational coordination agency. Forest owners also have their own organizations. Germany has also developed a comprehensive forestry education and training system that trains skilled workers from the basic level to plan management talents. Because forestry is an industry that requires a high degree of expertise, technology and operational technology systems, Germany places great emphasis on cultivating forestry workers with expertise and technology. To this end, there are forestry technical schools throughout Germany that train forestry skilled workers. The university is responsible for cultivating forestry management talents, management talents and professional managers and coordinators who can plan and coordinate the whole process from forest construction to timber harvesting and sales.
German forestry and timber industry take into account multiple benefits
In Germany, forestry is a very important large-scale industry. According to recent statistics, Germany's forestry output is only slightly lower than the auto industry, accounting for 5% of the gross national product (GNP). In the field of forest cultivation and timber production and timber industry, the employed population reached 1.3 million, nearly double the number of the automotive industry. Especially in mountainous areas, forestry plays an important economic role. For example, in the forestry-developed Black Forest area, one out of every four people is engaged in timber-related work.
German forestry is a sustainable forestry that targets large diameter timber. It should not be overlooked that this kind of forestry has created a beautiful forest while producing high-quality large-diameter timber, providing a valuable space for recreation and recreation. People can ride horses, walk, and ride bicycles in the forest. For these reasons, the German forest management first adopted a non-clear cutting operation, which has little damage to the landscape and soil. Moreover, the German Forest Law stipulates that forest owners have no right to refuse visitors to the forest. Even private forests, people can enter at will. Walkers can relax and enjoy nature in the quiet forest.
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